Sunday, June 22, 2014

How Many Pyramids are in the World?

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If you ask yourself how many pyramids are in the world you will be lost in thoughts. And it least you wouldn't find the right number. No matter who you are a person who has never interested in pyramids or you have PhD in History, it’s not matter you do not find an answer on this question. Let me tell you a truth that nobody knows how many pyramids are in the world. Moreover it’s really not easy to count all pyramids and tell the total number. I have been researching pyramids studies for more than 10 years and never saw a research about that. That’s why I would like to do a small research on this problem where I’ll show you have many pyramids are in the world (approximately of course) and why it’s not easy to make the worldwide research and to count all of them.

world of pyramids map three great pyramids in Giza comparison of the pyramids 
At first I would like to clarify what is a pyramid and what to refer to a pyramid construction.
According to the Wikipedia a pyramid “is a structure whose shape is roughly that of a pyramid in the geometric sense; that is, its outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top”. This is a classical pyramidal form which represents the Great pyramid in Giza as like other two pyramids on the same plateau.

But there are other forms of pyramids: flat-toped pyramid construction with the truncated platform on the top like in Mexico and China, pyramids with round cylindrical base like the Silbury Hill in England and pyramids with rectangular base and flat-topped like Monks Mound in US. The constructions like Silbury hill or pyramid mounds of US usually scientists refer to the mound but I refer mounds to pyramids because of their outer surface converge to the point at the top and their prototype was a classical pyramid form. All pyramids regardless of the forms and construction materials have one historical source which was changes by local environmental and social conditions. Here is the first problem in answering to the question how many pyramids are in world because of many scientists are not agree with the opinion to refer mounds to pyramids. I call them as a pyramid mound which you can see on the Interactive Map on the main page.

Pyramid of the Sun, Bosnia Silbury Hill pyramid of USA 

Now we know that there are several pyramid forms. Another problem is an acceptance and scientific acknowledgment that a pyramid is the pyramid! There it another form of the pyramid calls "pyramid hill", the new terminology which was used widely in 2006 when a colossal pyramid construction was found in central Bosnia. Several scientists claimed that this pyramid (the Pyramid of the Sun, Visoko, B&H) is the natural hill adopted by man to pyramid form in ancient time. The excavation will show what this is: the classical pyramid or adopted hill. Later researchers found pyramid hills in Italy, Slovenia, Australia, Russia and Indonesia which are going to be investigated. In this research and in project I refer this kind of constructions with human (or even possible) interventions to the pyramids.

At least we have four pyramid forms and meaning of the term of pyramid (learn more about meaning of the word “pyramid”) for starting the calculation.

pyramids  egypt pyramids of Giza 

The world famous pyramid location is Egypt with around 120 pyramids. According to the Wikipedia there are 118 pyramids but in fact some scientists are disagree with this and total number of the pyramids no one can say for 100 % sure. In August 2012 Angela Micol from North Carolina founder of Google Earth Anomalies blog discovered 2 pyramidal formations in Upper Egypt. Pyramids of Egypt are different forms, construction materials and technologies, from primitive bricks pyramids from the soil and dirty to the high polishes massive stone blocks pyramids.

But the main land of pyramids is Latin America or Mesoamerica! Everybody knows about the pyramids of Yucatan peninsula and Teotihuacan ancient city in Mexico but in fact there are more than several hundreds of flat-toped pyramid with terraces and stairs. There are 18 famous Mayan archaeological sites in Yucatan and each of them has pyramids in number of 3 to 20. It’s mean that average number of pyramids of Yucatan is 230-250. To know exactly to total number of the pyramids of all Mexico is unreal.

map  El Mirador el mirador La Danta 

But the main pyramids location is Guatemala! The number of ancient sites, which have never been excavated and researched are close to one hundred and may be new sites of ancient cities would be found in future in deep jungle. There are pyramids in each archaeological site and there are no evidences on the Internet on number of the pyramids there. But in fact only El Mirador ancient Mayan city has more than 30 pyramids of different size where is the biggest and the tallest is La Danta pyramid in 172 meters height that is taller the Great pyramid in Egypt for 26 meters! While the second largest pyramid of El Mirador the pyramid El Tigre in 145 meters height (like the Great Pyramid, Giza). La Danta pyramid is the largest pyramid in the Western hemisphere and one of the greatest in the world.

The total number of the pyramids of Guatemala is possible to calculate only being in Guatemala and having local guide tour for several months. In opinion there are around 300-400 pyramids. Together with the Mexico, Belize, Honduras and El Salvador we have around 1000 pyramids there.
In North, USA there is not a pyramid in classical from like in Giza, Egypt. But there are several tens of mounds. The biggest is the Monks Mound St. Luis, Illinois. The pyramid mound has dimensions of 92 feet in height (30 meters), 951 feet (290 meters) long and 836 feet (255 meters) wide that makes it the biggest pyramid construction in US. Around the Monks Mound several pyramidal mounds are located that made that area known as Cahokia archaeological historic site. In Ohio, Georgia and Virginia there are more than 30 pyramid mounds in different size dated like Cahokia mound 3000 – 1000 BC.

df pyramids of Peru  

South America is not so known for pyramid like for great megalith of Cusco in Peru. But there are more than 30 investigated pyramids in Peru in different forms and size. The main pyramids location in Peru is Tecume with 26 pyramids constructed from the local soil bricks. Another one big pyramid in Peru considered of Ichimay Culture that has a truncated form like pyramids in Mexico but the construction material is the same like in Tecume. And just a year ago another pyramid was found in Peru, not so far from Lima. The pyramid complex was named "El Paraíso" (The Paradise). The main pyramid and surrounding buildings were dated back to around 2200 BC. That makes El Paraiso in the same period of time like the Monks mound in US.

The old Europe still has many mysteries. In 2005-2006 the great pyramid construction was found and investigated in central Bosnia and Herzegovina later some pyramid hills were found by amateur researchers in Italy and Slovenia. Moreover there are close to 10 pyramids in Greece, one in France, several in Spain and tens in Sicily (Italy) and Tenerife (Spain), one great mound pyramid in England known like Silbury Hill. In western Russia you can find also several mound pyramids in Samara city surroundings and in Volgograd city known as Mamaev Kurgan where is the biggest monument dedicated to the victims of Second World War located now on the top of the mane made pyramid mound. In 2011 a group of researchers from Moscow found two pyramids in Kolskiy peninsula in far distance from the towns and roads. These pyramids have form of stone mounds.

In last decade the interest attached to the Asian region. And the main interested country for pyramid research is China. There are more than 200 pyramids in different forms and size in central China, in Xi’an and Luoyang constructed from the local clay and soil materials. The quality of construction materials are so great that even after 2000 years the pyramids have ideal form of truncated pyramids with straight edges and four sides with perfect geographical orientation. In the Chinese and North Korea border there is another kind of pyramids constructed from the stone blocks of different forms but not so huge like pyramids in Xi’an area. The total number of Chinese pyramids is not clear and there no chance to research all of them and calculate the total number.

Chinese pyramid White pyramid Gurut 

Pyramids of Southeast Asia countries have another scenario; they are constructed from the stone blocks of small size or from the stone bricks. Close to 10 pyramids of Cambodia referred to the Khmer culture. Borobudur pyramid in Indonesia is the fines example of Asian type of pyramids while another pyramid called Candi Sukuh in Indonesia has a lot of similarities with the Mayan pyramids in –°entral America. Close to 20 pyramids in Cambodia and Indonesia are and there is an information on Internet about the pyramids in Malaysia but no real photos and evidences. In 2010 in Java island a group of local enthusiasts discovered a pyramid in the jungle near Cicapar Sand Village, Garut, West Java. It was called Gurut pyramid by local researchers who determined that the pyramid has an artificial origin in age of 8000 years old. So, South East Asia is very interesting region for pyramids investigation and no doubt there will be more news in future from there.

21 century is a time of relevant discoveries in science. 12 years of new century passed away and for that time so many discoveries of pyramids were made. World attention is getting more and more interested to the Egyptian pyramids in Giza plateau and to the Great Sphinx because of fundamental historical science cannot give the answers for millions of open-minded people from all over the world. In this century the main region of research would be underwater world.

cuba  underwater pyramid 

The floor of the oceans and seas is still unknown world with many mysteries. In past years a group of Canadian researchers headed by two scientists Paul Weinzweig and Pauline Zalitzki found the ruins of ancient buildings for about a mile below the sea and considered them to be Atlantis. The sensational discovery was made close to the western Cuba seashore. The researchers found three underwater pyramids and some structures close to the pyramid forms or that could be destroyed pyramids. They are going to investigate that area and organize another expedition to the underwater city of pyramids.

We are living in the world of pyramids in different forms and size located elsewhere in the world and we do not know how many pyramids are still waiting their time to being discovered!